Depression is a common illness worldwide, affecting more than 264 million people (1). Depression is different from normal mood changes and short-term emotional reactions to problems in everyday life. Depression can be a serious health disorder, especially if it is prolonged and takes a moderate to severe form. It can lead to significant distress and poor functioning at work, school, and in the family. In the worst cases, it can lead to suicide. Each year about 800,000 people die by suicide, the second leading cause of death among people ages 15-29. In order to prevent this, you need to see a specialist in time and take medications such as this:

Despite the availability of effective mental health treatment, in low- and middle-income countries, 76% to 85% of people with mental health problems do not receive any treatment (2). Barriers to obtaining effective treatment include lack of resources, lack of trained providers, and social stigma associated with mental disorders. Another barrier is inaccurate assessment. In all countries, people with depression are often misdiagnosed, while others without the disorder are sometimes misdiagnosed and prescribed antidepressants.

The burden of depression and other mental health disorders is growing globally. In May 2013, the World Health Assembly passed a resolution calling for a comprehensive, coordinated national response to mental health disorders.

Types and Symptoms
Depending on the number of symptoms and their severity, a depressive episode may qualify as mild, moderate, or severe.

One major distinction is also made between depression in people who have had previous manic episodes and depression in people who have had no previous manic episodes. Both types of depression can be chronic (i.e., over a long period of time) and recurrent, especially if left untreated.

Recurrent depressive disorder: these are recurrent depressive episodes. During these episodes, the person is in a depressed mood, loses interests and no sense of joy, and a decrease in vital energy leads to a decrease in activity for at least two weeks. Many people with depression also suffer from anxiety, sleep and appetite disorders and may experience feelings of guilt or have low self-esteem, poor concentration and even medically unexplained symptoms.

Depending on the number of symptoms and their severity, a depressive episode may qualify as mild, moderate or severe. A person with a mild depressive episode will have some difficulty performing normal work and social activities, but in all likelihood will not stop functioning completely. During a major depressive episode, depressed individuals are most often unable to continue to perform normal social, work, or household activities or can do so only to a limited extent.

Bipolar affective disorder: this type of depression usually consists of both manic and depressive episodes interrupted by periods of

normalcy. Manic episodes include an agitated or irritable mood, excessive activity, speech pressure, inflated self-esteem, and decreased need for sleep.

Factors that contribute to depression and its prevention
Depression develops as a result of a complex interaction of social, psychological, and biological factors. People who have experienced any adverse events (loss of job, bereavement, psychological trauma) are more likely to develop depression. Depression, in turn, can exacerbate stress, disrupt normal functioning, worsen the sufferer’s life situation and lead to even more severe depression.

There is a relationship between depression and physical health. For example, cardiovascular disease can lead to the development of depression and vice versa.

Prevention programs have been found to reduce the burden of depression. Effective community-based approaches to depression prevention include school-oriented programs to teach positive thinking to children and adolescents.

Interventions for parents of children with behavioral problems can help reduce depressive symptoms in parents and improve outcomes in their children. Exercise programs for older adults are also effective in preventing depression.